Preparedness of Senior Public Service Pharmacists for Clinical Leadership Roles: A Cross-Sectional Study

Justice Dogbe1, Harry Amoaning Okyere2, Isaiah Sagoe1, Gordon Aberkah-Nkrumah3

1Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital
2Pharmaceutical Society of Ghana
3University of Ghana Business School

August (2023) pp 11-19 DOI:
Published online 31st August 2023.
© 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CCBY license


The Seven-star Pharmacist concept as promulgated by the World Health Organization identifies the pharmacist as a leader, among many other roles. Clinical leadership skills are essential in all healthcare organizations, regardless of position or area of practice, yet many pharmacists remain unaware of how leadership can be integrated into their daily clinical practice. While there is limited literature on pharmacist and clinical leadership preparedness in the sub-Saharan African region, particularly in Ghana, concerns about the hospital working environment and learning opportunities suggest that pharmacists feel unprepared for the responsibilities of clinical leadership. Furthermore, most leadership preparedness literature focuses on physicians, nurses, and public health professionals, with pharmacists being underrepresented. This study aims to address these gaps and provide insights into methods to enhance pharmacist leadership readiness in Ghana.

The current study was an anonymous, online based, quantitative, cross-sectional survey conducted between April and June 2022. Participants were public service pharmacists drawn from the Government and Hospital Pharmacist Association (GHOSPA) of Ghana, who worked in government-funded health facilities within the Greater Accra region of Ghana, one of the sixteen administrative regions of the country. The questionnaire consisted of a set of questions that employed a combination of Likert scales, multiple-choice, open-ended, and closed-ended questions. The questionnaire comprised the following sections: biodata of participants and ratings of their level of preparedness for clinical leadership roles using a 5 point Likert scale.

Nearly half of respondents (46%, n=67) reported their level of preparedness for a clinical leadership role was poor (32%) or very poor (14%). Self-reported level of knowledge and understanding of their clinical leadership roles at the time of their appointment was fair for 35% (n=51) of the respondents, whereas 23% (n=34) reported poor or very poor knowledge of the participants in the study, 65% reported receiving some form of training on clinical leadership either at the time of appointment or during their assignment, with only 35% reporting their training to be effective.

The study underscores the importance of addressing the knowledge gaps and training needs of pharmacists to enhance their preparedness for clinical leadership roles. Furthermore, organizational policies, career development opportunities, and support systems need to be established to promote effective clinical leadership roles among pharmacists.

Keywords: Clinical leadership, pharmacist, preparedness, Ghana

© The Author(s) 2023. Published by the Pharmaceutical Society of Ghana (PSGH). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.